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Authors: Müller-Heupt, Lena Katharina
Wiesmann-Imilowski, Nadine
Kaya, Sebahat
Schumann, Sven
Steiger, Maximilian
Bjelopavlovic, Monika
Deschner, James
Al-Nawas, Bilal
Lehmann, Karl Martin
Title: Effectiveness and safety of over-the-counter tooth-whitening agents compared to hydrogen peroxide in vitro
Online publication date: 22-May-2023
Year of first publication: 2023
Language: english
Abstract: (1) This study investigated the whitening effect, cytotoxicity and enamel surface alterations induced by different over-the-counter (OTC) bleaching agents in comparison to hydrogen peroxide. (2) Human teeth (n = 60) were randomly assigned into 6 groups (n = 10), stained with coffee solution for 7 d, followed by a whitening period of 7 d with either placebo, bromelain, sodium bicarbonate, sodium chlorite, PAP or hydrogen peroxide. Color measurements were performed with a spectrophotometer. Scanning electron micrographs (SEM) were taken to assess the enamel structure. Cytotoxicity of the tested substances was assessed based on the cell viability of primary human fibroblasts. (3) The application of all whitening gels resulted in a greater color difference of the enamel (ΔE) in comparison to the negative control. Hydrogen peroxide caused the greatest color difference. Bromelain and PAP treatment showed no enamel surface changes, in contrast to hydrogen peroxide treatment, which showed very mild interprismatic dissolution. Bromelain was the only non-cytotoxic agent. (4) The maximum effect achieved by all OTC bleaching agents was the removal of stains, whereas hydrogen peroxide was capable of further whitening the teeth. Bromelain treatment was neither cytotoxic, nor resulted in enamel surface alterations, and its whitening effect was less, yet still effective, compared to hydrogen peroxide.
DDC: 610 Medizin
610 Medical sciences
Institution: Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz
Department: FB 04 Medizin
Place: Mainz
Version: Published version
Publication type: Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Document type specification: Scientific article
License: CC BY
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Journal: International journal of molecular sciences
Pages or article number: 1956
Publisher: Molecular Diversity Preservation International
Publisher place: Basel
Issue date: 2023
ISSN: 1422-0067
Publisher URL:
Publisher DOI: 10.3390/ijms24031956
Appears in collections:DFG-491381577-G

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