Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
Authors: Petersen, Julia
Schulz, Ann-Christin
Brähler, Elmar
Sachser, Cedric
Fegert, Jörg M.
Beutel, Manfred E.
Title: Childhood maltreatment, depression and their link to adult economic burdens
Online publication date: 13-Feb-2023
Year of first publication: 2022
Language: english
Abstract: Background: Adult depression is a common consequence of adverse childhood experiences. There is also a higher likelihood of being affected by economic burdens after having experienced a traumatic event in childhood. As depression has been associated with economic burden, these long-term sequelae of childhood adversity are likely to interact. Goals: We investigated depression and economic consequences, such as unemployment, lower level of education, lower income as long-term sequelae of adverse childhood experiences in adulthood and their interaction. Methods: Childhood Maltreatment was measured by the German version of the Adverse Childhood Experience (ACE) questionnaire. Depression was measured by the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-2). Logistic regressions were applied to investigate the risks of suffering economic burdens, with depression as a moderator. Results: Depressive symptoms increased with the number of ACEs and were highest in those reporting four or more ACEs, especially amongst those who experienced sexual and emotional abuse, as well as neglect. Moderation analysis showed a significant effect of depression increasing almost all economic burdens. Migration background additionally increased the risk of unemployment and working in a blue-collar job. Female gender decreased the risk of unemployment and working in a blue-collar job, but increased the risk of low income and part-time employment. Conclusion: The moderation effect of depression increased the negative impact of exposure to multiple ACEs on economic life in adulthood. Prevention of ACEs and early intervention are needed to prevent the mental health and economic consequences.
DDC: 610 Medizin
610 Medical sciences
Institution: Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz
Department: FB 04 Medizin
Place: Mainz
Version: Published version
Publication type: Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Document type specification: Scientific article
License: CC BY
Information on rights of use:
Journal: Frontiers in psychiatry
Pages or article number: 908422
Publisher: Frontiers Research Foundation
Publisher place: Lausanne
Issue date: 2022
ISSN: 1664-0640
Publisher DOI: 10.3389/fpsyt.2022.908422
Appears in collections:DFG-491381577-G

Files in This Item:
  File Description SizeFormat
childhood_maltreatment_depres-20230126115740294.pdf251.85 kBAdobe PDFView/Open