Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://doi.org/10.25358/openscience-6997
Authors: Mauer, Katharina M.
Schmidt, Hanno
Dittrich, Marco
Fröbius, Andreas C.
Hellmann, Sören Lukas
Zischler, Hans
Hankeln, Thomas
Herlyn, Holger
Title: Genomics and transcriptomics of epizoic Seisonidea (Rotifera, syn. Syndermata) reveal strain formation and gradual gene loss with growing ties to the host
Online publication date: 18-May-2022
Language: english
Abstract: Background Seisonidea (also Seisonacea or Seisonidae) is a group of small animals living on marine crustaceans (Nebalia spec.) with only four species described so far. Its monophyletic origin with mostly free-living wheel animals (Monogononta, Bdelloidea) and endoparasitic thorny-headed worms (Acanthocephala) is widely accepted. However, the phylogenetic relationships inside the Rotifera-Acanthocephala clade (Rotifera sensu lato or Syndermata) are subject to ongoing debate, with consequences for our understanding of how genomes and lifestyles might have evolved. To gain new insights, we analyzed first drafts of the genome and transcriptome of the key taxon Seisonidea. Results Analyses of gDNA-Seq and mRNA-Seq data uncovered two genetically distinct lineages in Seison nebaliae Grube, 1861 off the French Channel coast. Their mitochondrial haplotypes shared only 82% sequence identity despite identical gene order. In the nuclear genome, distinct linages were reflected in different gene compactness, GC content and codon usage. The haploid nuclear genome spans ca. 46 Mb, of which 96% were reconstructed. According to ~ 23,000 SuperTranscripts, gene number in S. nebaliae should be within the range published for other members of Rotifera-Acanthocephala. Consistent with this, numbers of metazoan core orthologues and ANTP-type transcriptional regulatory genes in the S. nebaliae genome assembly were between the corresponding numbers in the other assemblies analyzed. We additionally provide evidence that a basal branching of Seisonidea within Rotifera-Acanthocephala could reflect attraction to the outgroup. Accordingly, rooting via a reconstructed ancestral sequence led to monophyletic Pararotatoria (Seisonidea+Acanthocephala) within Hemirotifera (Bdelloidea+Pararotatoria). Conclusion Matching genome/transcriptome metrics with the above phylogenetic hypothesis suggests that a haploid nuclear genome of about 50 Mb represents the plesiomorphic state for Rotifera-Acanthocephala. Smaller genome size in S. nebaliae probably results from subsequent reduction. In contrast, genome size should have increased independently in monogononts as well as bdelloid and acanthocephalan stem lines. The present data additionally indicate a decrease in gene repertoire from free-living to epizoic and endoparasitic lifestyles. Potentially, this reflects corresponding steps from the root of Rotifera-Acanthocephala via the last common ancestors of Hemirotifera and Pararotatoria to the one of Acanthocephala. Lastly, rooting via a reconstructed ancestral sequence may prove useful in phylogenetic analyses of other deep splits.
DDC: 570 Biowissenschaften
570 Life sciences
Institution: Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz
Department: FB 10 Biologie
Place: Mainz
DOI: http://doi.org/10.25358/openscience-6997
Version: Published version
Publication type: Zeitschriftenaufsatz
License: CC BY
Information on rights of use: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
Journal: BMC genomics
22
Pages or article number: 604
Publisher: BioMed Central
Publisher place: London
Issue date: 2021
ISSN: 1471-2164
Publisher DOI: 10.1186/s12864-021-07857-y
Appears in collections:JGU-Publikationen

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