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Authors: Fahrer, Jörg
Christmann, Markus
Title: DNA alkylation damage by nitrosamines and relevant DNA repair pathways
Online publication date: 8-Aug-2023
Year of first publication: 2023
Language: english
Abstract: Nitrosamines occur widespread in food, drinking water, cosmetics, as well as tobacco smoke and can arise endogenously. More recently, nitrosamines have been detected as impurities in various drugs. This is of particular concern as nitrosamines are alkylating agents that are genotoxic and carcinogenic. We first summarize the current knowledge on the different sources and chemical nature of alkylating agents with a focus on relevant nitrosamines. Subsequently, we present the major DNA alkylation adducts induced by nitrosamines upon their metabolic activation by CYP450 monooxygenases. We then describe the DNA repair pathways engaged by the various DNA alkylation adducts, which include base excision repair, direct damage reversal by MGMT and ALKBH, as well as nucleotide excision repair. Their roles in the protection against the genotoxic and carcinogenic effects of nitrosamines are highlighted. Finally, we address DNA translesion synthesis as a DNA damage tolerance mechanism relevant to DNA alkylation adducts.
DDC: 610 Medizin
610 Medical sciences
Institution: Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz
Department: FB 04 Medizin
Place: Mainz
Version: Published version
Publication type: Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Document type specification: Scientific article
License: CC BY
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Journal: International journal of molecular sciences
Pages or article number: 4684
Publisher: MDPI
Publisher place: Basel
Issue date: 2023
ISSN: 1422-0067
Publisher DOI: 10.3390/ijms24054684
Appears in collections:DFG-491381577-G

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