Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://doi.org/10.25358/openscience-900
Authors: Veerachato, Gunnaporn
Title: On the cellular stress response to Staphylococcus aureus alpha-toxin
Online publication date: 12-Jan-2007
Language: english
Abstract: Staphylococcus aureus alpha-hemolysin was the first bacterial toxin recognized to form pores in the plasma membrane of eukaryotic cells. It is secreted as a water-soluble monomer that upon contact with target membranes forms an amphiphatic heptameric beta-barrel which perforates the bilayer. As a consequence, red cells undergo colloidosmotic lyses, while some nucleated cells may succumb to necrosis or programmed cell death. However, most cells are capable of repairing a limited number of membrane lesions, and then respond with productive transcriptional activation of NF-kB. In the present study, by using microarray and semiquantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), data from a previously performed serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) were extended and verified, revealing that immediate early genes (IEGs) such as c-fos, c-jun and egr-1 are strongly induced at 2-8 h after transient toxin treatment. Activating protein 1 (AP-1: c-Fos, c-Jun) binding activity was increased accordingly. As IEGs are activated by growth factors, these findings led to the discovery that -toxin promotes cell cycle progression of perforated cells in an EGFR-dependent fashion. Although the amount of c-fos mRNA rose rapidly after toxin treatment, c-Fos protein expression was observed only after a lag of about 3 h. Since translation consumes much ATP, which transiently drops after transient membrane perforation, the suspicion arised that membrane-perforation caused global, but temporary downregulation of translation. In fact, eIF2α became heavily phosphorylated minutes after cells had been confronted with the toxin, resulting in shutdown of protein synthesis before cellular ATP levels reached the nadir. GCN2 emerged as a candidate eIF2α kinase, since its expression rapidly increased in toxin-treated cells. Two hours after toxin treatment, GADD34 transcripts, encoding a protein that targets the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) to the endoplasmic reticulum, were overexpressed. This was followed by dephosphorylation of eIF2α and resumption of protein synthesis. Addition of tautomycetin, a specific inhibitor of PP1, led to marked hyperphosphorylation of eIF2α and significantly reduced the drop of ATP-levels in toxin-treated cells. A novel link between two major stress-induced signalling pathways emerged when it was found that both translational arrest and restart were under the control of stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) p38. The data provide an explanation for the indispensible role of p38 for defence against the archetypal threat of membrane perforation by agents that produce small transmembrane-pores.
Staphylococcus aureus alpha-hemolysin was the first bacterial toxin recognized to form pores in the plasma membrane of eukaryotic cells. It is secreted as a water-soluble monomer that upon contact with target membranes forms an amphiphatic heptameric beta-barrel which perforates the bilayer. As a consequence, red cells undergo colloidosmotic lyses, while some nucleated cells may succumb to necrosis or programmed cell death. However, most cells are capable of repairing a limited number of membrane lesions, and then respond with productive transcriptional activation of NF-kB. In the present study, by using microarray and semiquantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), data from a previously performed serial analysis of gene expression (SAGE) were extended and verified, revealing that immediate early genes (IEGs) such as c-fos, c-jun and egr-1 are strongly induced at 2-8 h after transient toxin treatment. Activating protein 1 (AP-1: c-Fos, c-Jun) binding activity was increased accordingly. As IEGs are activated by growth factors, these findings led to the discovery that -toxin promotes cell cycle progression of perforated cells in an EGFR-dependent fashion. Although the amount of c-fos mRNA rose rapidly after toxin treatment, c-Fos protein expression was observed only after a lag of about 3 h. Since translation consumes much ATP, which transiently drops after transient membrane perforation, the suspicion arised that membrane-perforation caused global, but temporary downregulation of translation. In fact, eIF2α became heavily phosphorylated minutes after cells had been confronted with the toxin, resulting in shutdown of protein synthesis before cellular ATP levels reached the nadir. GCN2 emerged as a candidate eIF2α kinase, since its expression rapidly increased in toxin-treated cells. Two hours after toxin treatment, GADD34 transcripts, encoding a protein that targets the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) to the endoplasmic reticulum, were overexpressed. This was followed by dephosphorylation of eIF2α and resumption of protein synthesis. Addition of tautomycetin, a specific inhibitor of PP1, led to marked hyperphosphorylation of eIF2α and significantly reduced the drop of ATP-levels in toxin-treated cells. A novel link between two major stress-induced signalling pathways emerged when it was found that both translational arrest and restart were under the control of stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) p38. The data provide an explanation for the indispensible role of p38 for defence against the archetypal threat of membrane perforation by agents that produce small transmembrane-pores.
DDC: 570 Biowissenschaften
570 Life sciences
Institution: Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz
Department: FB 10 Biologie
Place: Mainz
ROR: https://ror.org/023b0x485
DOI: http://doi.org/10.25358/openscience-900
URN: urn:nbn:de:hebis:77-12253
Version: Original work
Publication type: Dissertation
License: In Copyright
Information on rights of use: https://rightsstatements.org/vocab/InC/1.0/
Appears in collections:JGU-Publikationen

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