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Authors: Raum, Philipp
Lamparter, Julia
Ponto, Katharina
Peto, Tunde
Hoehn, René
Schulz, Andreas
Schneider, Astrid
Wild, Philipp
Pfeiffer, Norbert
Mirshahi, Alireza
Title: Prevalence and cardiovascular associations of diabetic retinopathy and maculopathy : results from the Gutenberg Health Study
Online publication date: 17-Oct-2022
Year of first publication: 2015
Language: english
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of blindness in people of working age. The purpose of this paper is to report the prevalence and cardiovascular associations of diabetic retinopathy and maculopathy (DMac) in Germany. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The Gutenberg Health Study (GHS) is a population-based study with 15,010 participants aged between 35 at 74 years from the city of Mainz and the district of Mainz-Bingen. We determined the weighted prevalence of DR and DMac by assessing fundus photographs of persons with diabetes from the GHS data base. Diabetes was defined as HbA1c >/= 6.5%, known diagnosis diabetes mellitus or known diabetes medication. Furthermore, we analysed the association between DR and cardiovascular risk factors and diseases. RESULTS: Overall, 7.5% (1,124/15,010) of the GHS cohort had diabetes. Of these, 27.7% were unaware of their disease and thus were newly diagnosed by their participation in the GHS. The prevalence of DR and DMac was 21.7% and 2.3%, respectively among patients with diabetes. Vision-threatening disease was present in 5% of the diabetic cohort. In the multivariable analysis DR (all types) was associated with age (Odds Ratio [95% confidence interval]: 0.97 [0.955-0.992]; p = 0.006) arterial hypertension (1.90 [1.190-3.044]; p = 0.0072) and vision-threatening DR with obesity (3.29 [1.504-7.206]; p = 0.0029). DR (all stages) and vision-threatening DR were associated with duration of diabetes (1.09 [1.068-1.114]; p<0.0001 and 1.18 [1.137-1.222]; p<0.0001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Our calculations suggest that more than a quarter-million persons have vision-threatening diabetic retinal disease in Germany. Prevalence of DR was lower in the GHS compared to East-Asian studies. Associations were found with age, arterial hypertension, obesity, and duration of diabetes mellitus.
DDC: 610 Medizin
610 Medical sciences
Institution: Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz
Department: FB 04 Medizin
Place: Mainz
Version: Published version
Publication type: Zeitschriftenaufsatz
License: CC BY
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Journal: PLoS one
Pages or article number: e0127188
Publisher: PLoS
Publisher place: Lawrence, Kan.
Issue date: 2015
ISSN: 1932-6203
Publisher URL:
Publisher DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0127188
Appears in collections:DFG-OA-Publizieren (2012 - 2017)

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