Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://doi.org/10.25358/openscience-4487
Authors: Orata, Francis
Title: Perfluorinated compounds in environmental matrices of Lake Victoria Gulf
Online publication date: 29-Jun-2009
Language: english
Abstract: ABSTRACT One of the major ecological challenges on Lake Victoria resources is the existence of “hot spots”, caused by human waste, urban runoff, and industrial effluents. The lake is tending towards eutrophication which is attributed to the increasing human population in its watershed. A report of the levels of perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoic acid in environmental matrices of Lake Victoria is presented, and the management implication of perfluorinated compounds and similar potential organic pollutants examined. Two widely consumed and economically important fish species namely Lates niloticus (Nile perch) and Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia) were obtained from Winam gulf of Lake Victoria, Kenya, and analysed for perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoic acid in muscles and liver using liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectroscopy. Variability in the concentrations of perfluorooctanoic acid or perfluorooctane sulfonate in river waters (range perfluorooctanoic acid 0.4 – 96.4 ng/L and perfluorooctane sulfonate < 0.4 – 13.2 ng/L) was higher than for Lake waters (range perfluorooctanoic acid 0.4 – 11.7 ng/L and perfluorooctane sulfonate < 0.4 – 2.5 ng/L respectively). Significant correlations were tested between perfluorinated compounds levels in sediments, fish and water. Wastewater treatment plants and other anthropogenic sources have been identified as significant sources or pathways for the introduction of perfluoroalkyl compounds into Lake Victoria ecosystem. In this study, elevated concentrations of perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate was found in two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Kisumu, City of Kenya. An alternative analytical method to liquid chromatography/ mass spectroscopy for analysis of perfluorocarboxylic acids in abiotic and biotic matrices where high concentrations are expected is also presented. Derivatisation of the acid group to form a suitable alkyl ester provided a suitable compound for mass spectroscopy detection coupled to gas chromatography instrumental analysis. The acid is esterified by an alkyl halide i.e benzyl bromide as the alkylating agent for Perfluorocarboxylic acids quantification. The study also involved degradability measurements of emerging perfluorinated surfactants substitutes. The stability of the substitutes of perfluorinated surfactants was tested by employing advanced oxidation processes, followed by conventional tests, among them an automated method based on the manometric respirometry test and standardized fix bed bioreactor [FBBR] on perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), a fluoroethylene polymer, fluorosurfactant (Zonyl), two fluoraliphaticesters (NOVEC ™ FC4430 and NOVEC ™ FC4432) and 10-(trifluoromethoxy) decane-sulfonate. Most of these emmerging surfactants are well-established in the market and have been used in several applications as alternatives to PFOS and PFOA based surfactants. The results of this study can be used as pioneer information for further studies on the sources, behaviour and fate of PFOA and PFOS and other related compounds in both abiotic and biota compartments of Lake Victoria and other lakes. Further an overview in degradation of emerging perfluorinated compounds substitutes is presented. Contribution in method development especially for acid group based fluorosurfactants is presented. The data obtained in this study can particularly be considered when formulating policies and management measures for preservation and sustainability of Lake Victoria resources.
ABSTRACT One of the major ecological challenges on Lake Victoria resources is the existence of “hot spots”, caused by human waste, urban runoff, and industrial effluents. The lake is tending towards eutrophication which is attributed to the increasing human population in its watershed. A report of the levels of perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoic acid in environmental matrices of Lake Victoria is presented, and the management implication of perfluorinated compounds and similar potential organic pollutants examined. Two widely consumed and economically important fish species namely Lates niloticus (Nile perch) and Oreochromis niloticus (Nile tilapia) were obtained from Winam gulf of Lake Victoria, Kenya, and analysed for perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoic acid in muscles and liver using liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectroscopy. Variability in the concentrations of perfluorooctanoic acid or perfluorooctane sulfonate in river waters (range perfluorooctanoic acid 0.4 – 96.4 ng/L and perfluorooctane sulfonate < 0.4 – 13.2 ng/L) was higher than for Lake waters (range perfluorooctanoic acid 0.4 – 11.7 ng/L and perfluorooctane sulfonate < 0.4 – 2.5 ng/L respectively). Significant correlations were tested between perfluorinated compounds levels in sediments, fish and water. Wastewater treatment plants and other anthropogenic sources have been identified as significant sources or pathways for the introduction of perfluoroalkyl compounds into Lake Victoria ecosystem. In this study, elevated concentrations of perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate was found in two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in Kisumu, City of Kenya. An alternative analytical method to liquid chromatography/ mass spectroscopy for analysis of perfluorocarboxylic acids in abiotic and biotic matrices where high concentrations are expected is also presented. Derivatisation of the acid group to form a suitable alkyl ester provided a suitable compound for mass spectroscopy detection coupled to gas chromatography instrumental analysis. The acid is esterified by an alkyl halide i.e benzyl bromide as the alkylating agent for Perfluorocarboxylic acids quantification. The study also involved degradability measurements of emerging perfluorinated surfactants substitutes. The stability of the substitutes of perfluorinated surfactants was tested by employing advanced oxidation processes, followed by conventional tests, among them an automated method based on the manometric respirometry test and standardized fix bed bioreactor [FBBR] on perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), a fluoroethylene polymer, fluorosurfactant (Zonyl), two fluoraliphaticesters (NOVEC ™ FC4430 and NOVEC ™ FC4432) and 10-(trifluoromethoxy) decane-sulfonate. Most of these emmerging surfactants are well-established in the market and have been used in several applications as alternatives to PFOS and PFOA based surfactants. The results of this study can be used as pioneer information for further studies on the sources, behaviour and fate of PFOA and PFOS and other related compounds in both abiotic and biota compartments of Lake Victoria and other lakes. Further an overview in degradation of emerging perfluorinated compounds substitutes is presented. Contribution in method development especially for acid group based fluorosurfactants is presented. The data obtained in this study can particularly be considered when formulating policies and management measures for preservation and sustainability of Lake Victoria resources.
DDC: 500 Naturwissenschaften
500 Natural sciences and mathematics
Institution: Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz
Department: FB 09 Chemie, Pharmazie u. Geowissensch.
Place: Mainz
DOI: http://doi.org/10.25358/openscience-4487
Version: Original work
Publication type: Dissertation
License: in Copyright
Information on rights of use: https://rightsstatements.org/vocab/InC/1.0/
Appears in collections:JGU-Publikationen

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