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Authors: Wilson, Christine Ann
Title: Ectomycorrhizae of sessile oak (Quercus petraea (Matt.) Liebl.)
Online publication date: 21-Jun-2005
Language: english
Abstract: Investigations were performed during the years 1999 to 2001 on a limed and unlimed plot within a high-elevated sessile oak forest. The oak forest (with 90 years old European beech at the understorey) was 170 to 197 years old. It is located at forest district Merzalben, location 04/0705, which is situated in the Palatinate Forest in south-west Germany. Liming was performed in December 1988 when 6 tons/ha of powdered Dolomite were brought up by the forestry department. Liming was performed to counteract the effects of soil acidification (pH(H2O) at Horizon A (0-10 cm): 3.9), which is induced by long-term (anthropogenic) acidic cloud cover and precipitation. Potentially toxic Al3+ ions, which become solubilized below pH 5, were suspected to be responsible for forest dieback and sudden death of the mature oaks. The most logical entry point for these toxic ions was suspected to occur in the highly absorptive region of the ectomycorrhizae (fungal covered root tips). However, the diversity and abundance of oak-ectomycorrhizal species and their actual roles in aluminum translocation (or blockage) were unknown. It was hypothesized that the ectomycorrhizae of sessile oaks in a limed forest would exhibit greater seasonal diversity and abundance with less evidence of incorporated aluminum than similar oak ectomycorrhizae from unlimed soils. To test this hypothesis, 12 oaks in the limed plot and 12 in an adjacent unlimed plot were selected. Each spring and fall for 2 years (1999 & 2000), 2 sets of soil cylinders (9.9 cm dia.) were extracted from Horizon A (0-10 cm), Horizon B (30-40 cm) and Horizon C (50-60 cm depth) at a distance of 1 meter from each tree base. Roots were extracted from each probe by gentle sieving and rinsing. Soil samples were retained for pH (H2O, CaCl2, and KCl) and moisture analysis. One set of roots was sorted by size and air-dried for biomass analysis. The finest mycorrhizal roots of this set were used for bound and unbound (cytosolic) mineral [Al, Ca, Mg, K, Na, Mn, S, Zn, Fe, Cd and Pb] analysis (by Landwirtschaftliche Untersuchungs- und Forschungsanstalt Rheinland Palatinate (LUFA)). Within 7 days of collection, the mycorrhizal tips from the second set of probes were excised, sorted, identified (using Agerer’s Color Atlas), counted and weighed. Seasonal diversity and abundance was characterized for 50 of the 93 isolates. The location and relative abundance of Al within the fungal and root cell walls was characterized for 68 species using 0.01% Morin dye and fluorescence microscopy. Morin complexes with Al to produce an intense yellow fluorescence. The 4 most common species (Cenococcum geophilum, Quercirhiza fibulocsytidiata, Lactarius subdulcis, Piceirhiza chordata) were prepared for bound Al, Ca, Fe and K mineral analysis by LUFA. The unlimed and limed plots were then compared. Only 46 of the 93 isolated ectomycorrhizal species had been previously associated with oaks in the literature. Mycorrhizal biomass was most abundant in Horizon A, declining with depth, drought and progressive soil acidification. Mycorrhizae were most diverse (32 species) in the limed plot, but individual species abundance was low (R Selection) in comparison to the unlimed plot, where there were fewer species (24) but each species present was abundant (K Selection). Liming increased diversity and altered dominance hierarchy, seasonal distributions and succession trends of ectomycorrhizae at all depths. Despite an expected reduction in Al content, the limed ectomycorrhizae both qualitatively (fluorescence analysis) and quantitatively (mineral analysis) contained more bound Al, especially so in Horizon A. The Al content qualitatively and quantitatively increased with depth in the unlimed and limed plots. The bound Al content fluctuated between 4000-and 20000 ppm while the unbound component was consistently lower (4 -14 ppm). The relative amount of unbound Al declined upon liming implying less availability for translocation to the crown area of the trees. This correspouds with the findings of good crown appearance and lower tree mortality in the limed zone. Each ectomycorrhizal species was unique in its ability to block, sequester (hold) or translocate Aluminum. In several species, Al uptake varied with changes in moisture, pH, depth and liming. According to the fluorescence study, about 48% of the isolated ectomycorrhizal species blocked and/or sequestered (held) Al in their mantle and/or Hartig net walls, qualitatively lowering bound Al in the adjacent root cell walls. Generally, if Al was more concentrated in the fungal walls, it was less evident in the cortex and xylem and conversely, if Al was low or absent from the fungal walls it was frequently more evident in the cortex and xylem.
DDC: 580 Pflanzen (Botanik)
580 Botanical sciences
Institution: Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz
Department: FB 10 Biologie
Place: Mainz
URN: urn:nbn:de:hebis:77-7287
Version: Original work
Publication type: Dissertation
License: In Copyright
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