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Authors: Khobta, Andriy
Title: Consequences of DNA damage for gene transcription : direct effects of modified nucleobases and the role of base excision repair = Folgen von DNA-Schäden für die Gentranskription
Online publication date: 18-Mar-2014
Year of first publication: 2012
Language: english
Abstract: The presence of damaged nucleobases in DNA can negatively influence transcription of genes. One of the mechanisms by which DNA damage interferes with reading of genetic information is a direct blockage of the elongating RNA polymerase complexes – an effect well described for bulky adducts induced by several chemical substances and UV-irradiation. However, other mechanisms must exist as well because many of the endogenously occurring non-bulky DNA base modifications have transcription-inhibitory properties in cells, whilstrnnot constituting a roadblock for RNA polymerases under cell free conditions. The inhibition of transcription by non-blocking DNA damage was investigated in this work by employing the reporter gene-based assays. Comparison between various types of DNA damage (UV-induced pyrimidine photoproducts, oxidative purine modifications induced by photosensitisation, defined synthetic modified bases such as 8-oxoguanine and uracil, and sequence-specific single-strand breaks) showed that distinct mechanisms of inhibition of transcription can be engaged, and that DNA repair can influence transcription of the affectedrngenes in several different ways.rnQuantitative expression analyses of reporter genes damaged either by the exposure of cells to UV or delivered into cells by transient transfection supported the earlier evidence that transcription arrest at the damage sites is the major mechanism for the inhibition of transcription by this kind of DNA lesions and that recovery of transcription requires a functional nucleotide excision repair gene Csb (ERCC6) in mouse cells. In contrast, oxidisedrnpurines generated by photosensitisation do not cause transcriptional blockage by a direct mechanism, but rather lead to transcriptional repression of the damaged gene which is associated with altered histone acetylation in the promoter region. The whole chain of events leading to transcriptional silencing in response to DNA damage remains to be uncovered. Yet, the data presented here identify repair-induced single-strand breaks – which arise from excision of damaged bases by the DNA repair glycosylases or endonucleases – as arnputative initiatory factor in this process. Such an indirect mechanism was supported by requirement of the 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase (OGG1) for the inhibition of transcription by synthetic 8-oxodG incorporated into a reporter gene and by the delays observed for the inhibition of transcription caused by structurally unrelated base modifications (8-oxoguanine and uracil). It is thereby hypothesized that excision of the modified bases could be a generalrnmechanism for inhibition of transcription by DNA damage which is processed by the base excision repair (BER) pathway. Further gene expression analyses of plasmids containing single-strand breaks or abasic sites in the transcribed sequences revealed strong transcription inhibitory potentials of these lesions, in agreement with the presumption that BER intermediates are largely responsible for the observed effects. Experiments with synthetic base modifications positioned within the defined DNA sequences showed thatrninhibition of transcription did not require the localisation of the lesion in the transcribed DNA strand; therefore the damage sensing mechanism has to be different from the direct encounters of transcribing RNA polymerase complexes with DNA damage.rnAltogether, this work provides new evidence that processing of various DNA basernmodifications by BER can perturb transcription of damaged genes by triggering a gene silencing mechanism. As gene expression can be influenced even by a single DNA damage event, this mechanism could have relevance for the endogenous DNA damage induced in cells under normal physiological conditions, with a possible link to gene silencing in general.
DDC: 500 Naturwissenschaften
500 Natural sciences and mathematics
Institution: Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz
Department: FB 09 Chemie, Pharmazie u. Geowissensch.
Place: Mainz
URN: urn:nbn:de:hebis:77-36803
Version: Original work
Publication type: Habilitationsschrift
License: In Copyright
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Issue date: 2012
Appears in collections:JGU-Publikationen

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