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Authors: Peneva, Kalina
Title: Design, synthesis and application of ultrastable rylene dyes for fluorescent labeling of biomolecules
Online publication date: 29-Jul-2008
Year of first publication: 2008
Language: english
Abstract: Studies of organic fluorescent dyes are experiencing a renaissance related to the increasing demands posed by new microscopy techniques for high resolution and high sensitivity. While in the last decade single molecule equipment and methodology has significantly advanced and in some cases reached theoretical limits (e.g. detectors approaching unity quantum yields) unstable emission from chromophores and photobleaching become more and more the bottleneck of the advancement and spreading of single-molecule fluorescence studies. The main goal of this work was the synthesis of fluorophores that are water-soluble, highly fluorescent in an aqueous environment, have a reactive group for attachment to a biomolecule and posses exceptional photostability. An approach towards highly fluorescent, water-soluble and monofunctional perylene-3,4,9,10-tetracarboxdiimide and terrylene-3,4:11,12-tetra carboxidiimide chromophores was presented. A new synthetic strategy for the desymmetrization of perylenetetracarboximides was elaborated; water-solubility was accomplished by introducing sulfonyl substituents in the phenoxy ring. Two strategies have been followed relying on either non-specific or site specific labeling. For this purpose a series of new water-soluble monofunctional perylene and terrylene dyes, bearing amine or carboxy group were prepared. The reactivity and photophysical properties of these new chromophores were studied in aqueous medium. The most suitable chromophores were further derivatized with amine or thiol reactive groups, suitable for chemical modification of proteins. The performance of the new fluorescent probes was assessed by single molecule enzyme tracking, in this case phospholipase acting on phospholipid supported layers. Phospholipase-1 (PLA-1) was labeled with N-hydroxysuccinimide ester functionalized perylene and terrylene derivatives. The purification of the conjugates was accomplished by novel convenient procedure for the removal of unreacted dye from labeled enzymes, which involves capturing excess dye with a solid support. This novel strategy for purification of bioconjugates allows convenient and fast separation of labeled proteins without the need for performing time consuming chromatographic or electrophoretic purification steps. The outstanding photostability of the dyes and, associated therewith, the extended survival times under strong illumination conditions allow a complete characterization of enzyme action on its natural substrates and even connecting enzyme mobility to catalytic activity. For site-specific attachment of the rylene dyes to proteins the chromophores were functionalized with thioesters or nitrilotriacetic acid groups. This allowed attachment of the emitters to the N-terminus of proteins by native chemical ligation or complexation with His-tagged polypeptides at the N- or C-termini, respectively. The synthesis of a water-soluble perylenebis (dicarboximide) functionalized with a thioester group was presented. This chromophore exhibits an exceptional photostability and a functional unit for site- specific labeling of proteins. The suitability of the fluorophore as a covalent label was demonstrated via native chemical ligation with protein containing N-terminal cystein residue. We exploited also oligohisitidine sequences as recognition elements for site-selective labeling. The synthesis of a new water-soluble perylene chromophore, containing a nitrilotriacetic acid functional group was demonstrated, using solution-phase and solid-phase approaches. This chromophore combines the exceptional photophysical properties of the rylene dyes and a recognition unit for site-specific labeling of proteins. An important feature of the label is the unchanged emission of the dye upon complexation with nickel ions.
DDC: 540 Chemie
540 Chemistry and allied sciences
Institution: Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz
Department: FB 09 Chemie, Pharmazie u. Geowissensch.
Place: Mainz
URN: urn:nbn:de:hebis:77-16894
Version: Original work
Publication type: Dissertation
License: In Copyright
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Appears in collections:JGU-Publikationen

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