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Authors: Petersen, Kirstin
Title: Decay of imprinted surface waves in polymers
Online publication date: 1-Jan-2003
Language: english
Abstract: CONCLUSIONS The focus of this work was the investigation ofanomalies in Tg and dynamics at polymer surfaces. Thethermally induced decay of hot-embossed polymer gratings isstudied using laser-diffraction and atomic force microscopy(AFM). Monodisperse PMMA and PS are selected in the Mwranges of 4.2 to 65.0 kg/mol and 3.47 to 65.0 kg/mol,respectively. Two different modes of measurement were used:the one mode uses temperature ramps to obtain an estimate ofthe near-surface glass temperature, Tdec,0; the other modeinvestigates the dynamics at a constant temperature aboveTg. The temperature-ramp experiments reveal Tdec,0 valuesvery close to the Tg,bulk values, as determined bydifferential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The PMMA of65.0 kg/mol shows a decreased value of Tg, while the PS samples of 3.47 and 10.3 kg/mol (Mw<Mw) show aslightly increased near-surface Tg. The transition widthbetween the onset of an amplitude reduction and a finalstate is smaller in the case of PS than in the case of PMMA.This suggests a higher degree of cooperation between thepolymer chains for PMMA than for PS chains even near thesurface. A reduction of the investigated near-surface region byusing smaller grating constants and AFM did not show achange in the near-surface Tdec,0. Decay experiments were performed at a variety ofconstant temperatures. Master plots are produced by shifting the decay curves, on the logarithmic time scale,with respect to a reference curve at Tref. From thisprocedure shift factors were extracted. An Arrhenius analysis of the shift factors reveals adecreasing non-Arrhenius (fragile) behavior with molecular weight for PMMA. PS is fragile for all Mw asexpected for linear polymers. Non-Arrhenius behavior allowsone to fit the shift factors to the William-Landel-Ferry(WLF) equation. The WLF parameters for the varying molecular weights ofPMMA and PS were extracted and compared to the values frombulk rheology measurements. Assuming cg1=16+/-2 at Tg, assuggested by Angell, the glass temperature was determinedfrom the dynamic decay experiments. Within the experimentalerrors, the values for Tg,surf(c1=16) and T_g,bulk(c1=16)tend to be smaller than Tdec,0 and Tg,bulk fromtemperature-ramp and DSC measurements, but confirm thecourse of the values with increasing Mw. The comparison of the fragilities (temperaturedependence of the polymer properties at Tg) near the surfaceand in the bulk shows a higher fragility for PS near thesurface, a lower one for PMMA with molecular weights of 4.2and 65.0 kg/mol. The different surface behavior of PS istraced back to a lower degree of cooperation and a largerfree volume fraction.
DDC: 540 Chemie
540 Chemistry and allied sciences
Institution: Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz
Department: FB 09 Chemie, Pharmazie u. Geowissensch.
Place: Mainz
Version: Original work
Publication type: Dissertation
License: in Copyright
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Appears in collections:JGU-Publikationen

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