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Authors: Vuyyuru, Raja Sekhar Reddy
Title: Therapeutic vaccination for chronic hepatitis B in the Trimera mouse model
Online publication date: 7-Oct-2009
Language: english
Abstract: Therapeutic vaccination for chronic hepatitis B in the Trimera mouse modelrnRaja Vuyyuru and Wulf O. BöcherrnHepatitis B is a liver disease caused by Hepatitis B virus (HBV). It ranges in severity from a mild illness, lasting a few weeks (acute), to a serious long-term (chronic) illness that can lead either to liver disease or liver cancer. Acute infection is self limiting in most adults, resulting in clearance of virus from blood and liver and the development of lasting immunity. However 5% of acutely infected patients do not resolve primary HBV infection, leading to chronic infection with persistent viral replication in the liver. The strength of the initial antiviral immune response elicited to Hepatitis B determines the subsequent clinical outcome. A strong and broad T cell response leads to spontaneous resolution. Conversely, a weak T cell response favours viral persistence and establishment of chronic disease. While treatments using interferon-alpha or nucleos(t)ide analogues can reduce disease progression, they rarely lead to complete recovery. The lack of a suitable small animal model hampered efforts to understand the mechanisms responsible for immune failure in these chronic patients.rnIn current study we used Trimera mice to study the efficacy of potential vaccine candidates using HBV loaded dendritic cells in HBV chronic infection in vivo. The Trimera mouse model is based on Balb/c mice implanted with SCID mouse bone marrow and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from HBV patients, and thus contains the immune system of the donor including their HBV associated T cell defect.rnIn our present study, strong HBV specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses were enhanced by therapeutic vaccination in chronic HBV patients. These T cell responses occurred independently of either the course of the disease or the strength of their underlying HBV specific T cell failure. These findings indicate that the Trimera mouse model represents a novel experimental tool for evaluating potential anti-HBV immunotherapeutic agents. This in vivo data indicated that both the HBV specific CD4+ cell and CD8+ responses were elicited in the periphery. These HBV specific T cells proliferated and secreted cytokines upon restimulation in Trimera mice. The observation that these HBV specific T cells are not detectable directly ex vivo indicates that they must be immune tolerant or present at a very low frequency in situ. HBV specific T cell responses were suppressed in Trimera mice under viremic conditions, suggesting that viral factors might be directly involved in tolerizing or silencing antiviral T cell responses. Thus, combination of an effective vaccine with antiviral treatment to reduce viremia might be a more effective therapeutic strategy for the future. Such approaches should be tested in Trimera mice generated in HBV or HBs expressing transgenic mice before conducting clinical trials.rn
DDC: 500 Naturwissenschaften
500 Natural sciences and mathematics
Institution: Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz
Department: FB 10 Biologie
Place: Mainz
URN: urn:nbn:de:hebis:77-21014
Version: Original work
Publication type: Dissertation
License: In Copyright
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Appears in collections:JGU-Publikationen

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