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Authors: Hettich, Nora
Entringer, Theresa M.
Kroeger, Hannes
Schmidt, Peter
Tibubos, Ana N.
Braehler, Elmar
Beutel, Manfred E.
Title: Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on depression, anxiety, loneliness, and satisfaction in the German general population : a longitudinal analysis
Online publication date: 5-Jan-2023
Year of first publication: 2022
Language: english
Abstract: Purpose Cross-sectional studies found high levels of depression and anxiety symptoms, and loneliness during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Reported increases were lower in longitudinal population-based findings. Studies including positive outcomes are rare. This study analyzed changes in mental health symptoms, loneliness, and satisfaction. Methods Respondents of the German Socio-Economic Panel (N = 6038) were surveyed pre-pandemic (2017/2019) and during the first (June 2020) and second wave (January and February 2021) of the pandemic. Self-report screeners assessed depression and anxiety symptoms, loneliness, life and health satisfaction. Difference scores were analysed using ANCOVAs focusing on time, gender, age groups. Results Depression and anxiety symptoms and health satisfaction increased from pre-pandemic to the first wave, but declined in the second pandemic wave. Loneliness increased and life satisfaction decreased during the first and the second wave of the pandemic. Young adults and women reported more distress and loneliness, even after controlling for pre-pandemic scores, education, and income. All effects remained stable when controlling for self-reported previous diagnosis of depression or region of residence. Conclusion Increases and decreases in mental health symptoms and health satisfaction showed little variation. Of concern are the strong increases of loneliness and decreased life satisfaction being important targets for interventions. Main risk factors are young age and female gender
DDC: 610 Medizin
610 Medical sciences
Institution: Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz
Department: FB 04 Medizin
Place: Mainz
Version: Published version
Publication type: Zeitschriftenaufsatz
License: CC BY
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Journal: Social psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology
Pages or article number: 2481
Publisher: Springer
Publisher place: Berlin u.a.
Issue date: 2022
ISSN: 1433-9285
Publisher DOI: 10.1007/s00127-022-02311-0
Appears in collections:DFG-491381577-H

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