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Autoren: Dietz, Pavel
Ulrich, Rolf
Dalaker, Robert
Striegel, Heiko
Franke, Andreas
Lieb, Klaus
Simon, Perikles
Titel: Associations between physical and cognitive doping : a cross-sectional study in 2.997 triathletes
Online-Publikationsdatum: 7-Okt-2022
Erscheinungsdatum: 2013
Sprache des Dokuments: Englisch
Zusammenfassung/Abstract: PURPOSE: This study assessed, for the first time, prevalence estimates for physical and cognitive doping within a single collective of athletes using the randomized response technique (RRT). Furthermore, associations between the use of legal and freely available substances to improve physical and cognitive performance (enhancement) and illicit or banned substances to improve physical and cognitive performance (doping) were examined. METHODS: An anonymous questionnaire using the unrelated question RRT was used to survey 2,997 recreational triathletes in three sports events (Frankfurt, Regensburg, and Wiesbaden) in Germany. Prior to the survey, statistical power analyses were performed to determine sample size. Logistic regression was used to predict physical and cognitive enhancement and the bootstrap method was used to evaluate differences between the estimated prevalences of physical and cognitive doping. RESULTS: 2,987 questionnaires were returned (99.7%). 12-month prevalences for physical and cognitive doping were 13.0% and 15.1%, respectively. The prevalence estimate for physical doping was significantly higher in athletes who also used physical enhancers, as well as in athletes who took part in the European Championship in Frankfurt compared to those who did not. The prevalence estimate for cognitive doping was significantly higher in athletes who also used physical and cognitive enhancers. Moreover, the use of physical and cognitive enhancers were significantly associated and also the use of physical and cognitive doping. DISCUSSION: The use of substances to improve physical and cognitive performance was associated on both levels of legality (enhancement vs. doping) suggesting that athletes do not use substances for a specific goal but may have a general propensity to enhance. This finding is important for understanding why people use such substances. Consequently, more effective prevention programs against substance abuse and doping could be developed.
DDC-Sachgruppe: 796 Sport
796 Athletic and outdoor sports and games
Veröffentlichende Institution: Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz
Organisationseinheit: FB 02 Sozialwiss., Medien u. Sport
FB 04 Medizin
Veröffentlichungsort: Mainz
Version: Published version
Publikationstyp: Zeitschriftenaufsatz
Nutzungsrechte: CC BY
Informationen zu den Nutzungsrechten:
Zeitschrift: PLoS one
Seitenzahl oder Artikelnummer: e78702
Verlag: PLoS
Verlagsort: Lawrence, Kan.
Erscheinungsdatum: 2013
ISSN: 1932-6203
URL der Originalveröffentlichung:
DOI der Originalveröffentlichung: 10.1371/journal.pone.0078702
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